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Animal ecology –  is an important subject of research for scientists. They study how these animals related to each other and how they related to their surroundings. There are numerous kinds of animal ecology. This includes: Population ecology, the study of the effects on the animals’ population Behavioral ecology, the study of the Behaviour of […]

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Tripplanning

Ecological Planning – is the way of recognizing the impact of environments and processes and using this information to discover solutions to incorporate human habitation appropriately. To be able to benefit both Ecological Planning’s outcome is to merge habitation. Ecological Planning’s notion has existed since the 1600’s but came due to greater awareness of side […]

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Ecological Relationships

Human Ecology and the Career Opportunities that Await

Human ecology studies the interaction between nature as well as man in various cultures. It can provide valuable information on how we can maximize the sources we have, the science of how we do things, and even offer tips on the best time to take the supplement. Most importantly on the latter, it is extremely useful when taking HGH supplement to have a stronger body or when planning to grow taller by some means.

Approaches in Studying Ecology

To have an efficient human ecology study and research, it is combining the methods and ideas from multiple disciplines which include:

  • Sociology
  • Anthropology
  • Biology
  • Archeology and;
  • Economic history

With the multidisciplinary approach that experts use in their study, it allowed them to address different concerns comprehensively. This is whether the issues are about sustainability, environmental justice, or even political ecology.

Supplements for Human Activities in Plethora of Ecosystems

As mentioned, human ecology is studying human life as well as its activity in different cultures and different situations. It looks not only in the past but in the present as well. Scientists do it this way to have a more thorough look at the different factors that are influencing interactions between humans, the environment they are in, types of supplementation they are taking for their body, how they behave, attitude, and so forth.

The goal of attaining an in-depth view is something that needs an integrated perspective that will transcend conventional boundaries among humanities, natural sciences, technology and social sciences. The major issue towards human ecology is focused on how individual cultural belief affects people and their livelihoods as well as social order.

Anthropological Perspective

While the cultural beliefs of people are among the focus in influential modern sciences similar to economics, human ecologists are examining the modern-day concept of economic growth and even technological development from the anthropologist’s point of view.

Being able to do a comparison of these ideas with other scientific insights regarding environmental degradation, global inequality, and climate change, human ecology begins to challenge these concepts that are perpetuating unequal and unsustainable global society.

Why Human Ecology is an Interesting Subject?

Studies in human ecology is capable of providing a theoretically deep and broad understanding of human interactions and its interaction in nature as well. Above everything else though, it empowers researchers to understand how human relationships with the environment are being affected by their location and history.

Careers in Human Ecology

For those who are fond of environmental, humanitarian, or educational work, pursuing a career in human ecology may just be the right path for your career options. It will bolster your negotiation and communication skills in handling global sustainability issues while making a huge impact in the world at large.

Blue Meanies Ecological Importance

No living thing has been judged as differently in the course of history as the potentially immortal mushrooms. In the Middle Ages, it was believed that mushrooms were not living things. Later they were assigned to plants, today they are recognized as a separate kingdom alongside plants and animals.

Blue meanies mushrooms in the ecosystem

Blue meanies mushrooms

In nature, mushrooms play an essential role in the breakdown of organic matter. Their ecological importance is enormous. The knowledge that mushrooms contain not only deadly poisons but also healing substances has been used in Asian medicine for thousands of years. Mushroom therapy is an essential part of traditional Chinese medicine. This is the reason why more and more people buy blue meanies Canada.

Blue meanies mushrooms and their importance for the natural balance

Together with the bacteria, fungi form the decomposition organisms in the material cycle of the ecosystems. For example, they break down wood, dried up leaves, fruits, and also horn and fats. In doing so, they return nitrogen compounds and other substances to the soil, which are then available to plants and animals again. This “recycling” task makes mushrooms the nourishment of the forest from an ecological point of view.

Mushrooms also play a key role as symbiotic partners. Particularly noteworthy are lichens as a community with algae and the mycorrhiza, translated as “mushroom root”, as a partnership between fungi and vascular plants. Most of our trees live in symbiosis with such fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi coat the fine roots of the tree, collect nutrients and convey them to the plants together with water. In return, the fungus receives the substances it needs for its life, especially sugar, proteins, and vitamins

Mushroom species decline

A threat to the forests means a threat to the fungi. In connection with research on forest dieback, it was recognized as early as the 1970s that forest dieback is preceded by fungus dieback or is linked to it. Many mushrooms are very sensitive to environmental pollution and are therefore reliable indicators of contamination. Many native mushroom species are endangered or have already died out. If the extinction of species in the forest is to be stopped, we must campaign for natural management and large-scale protected areas.

Freshly Picked Fruits Good For Your Health | LeanBean

Fruits are among the sources of ingredients that make LeanBean a natural fat burner. Acai Berry and Garcinia Cambogia are among the fruit extracts used, combined with other healthy herbs like Turmeric root and Bioperine. Coffee Bean extracts are also among the ingredients of LeanBean supplements.

This makes it an all organic natural fat burner that doesn’t compromise your health. So for those who ask if Lean Bean is scam or legal Supplement? You don’t need to worry because you will know you are getting only the best.

Would you like to enjoy all this fruit goodness for free? You can easily fulfill this wish with fresh fruits directly from your own garden. With fruit trees and fruit bushes, you can transform your garden into an attractive kitchen garden that will spoil you with fruits from its own cultivation from early summer to autumn. It’s much like getting all the benefits of LeanBean from your garden.

In winter you can enjoy wonderful jams, jellies, and juices if you process some of the fruit harvests. The joy of the orchard begins in spring when the fruit trees and bushes spoil you with their abundant blossoms. So that you can reap a rich harvest, there are a few points to consider in planning and maintenance.

Your favorite fruit from your own cultivation

Pears and an apple

If you want to enjoy fruit from your own garden, of course, you prefer varieties that you and your family are particularly fond of. A row of sour gooseberries or sour currants doesn’t make much sense if you’re in the mood for sweet strawberries or juicy peaches. However, depending on the regional location, the orientation of the garden area, and the needs of the surrounding, it may be necessary to make compromises when selecting the types of fruit for the garden.

The apple tree

You will discover an apple tree in practically every orchard. An orchard in this country is not complete without an apple tree. If you are still missing the crunchy fruits in the garden, you should act quickly. Apples make only minor demands on the soil and even in moderate sunlight, they produce a lot of delicious and vitamin-rich fruits.

The variety of this fruit is huge. You can grow current varieties that you know from the supermarket. If you are a lover of apple pie, baked apples or if you enjoy apples as an accompaniment to hearty dishes. A slightly sheltered place with enough sun, not overly compacted soil and moderate soil moisture is sufficient for an apple tree to flourish.

Pear Tree

The pear is versatile. It belongs on every fruit plate, goes well with various stews, makes a delicious compote, and delivers high-percentage schnapps and tasty liqueurs. Unlike apples, pears are a bit difficult to ripen. At first, they are too hard and then quickly too soft.

That is why there is nothing better than pears with the ideal degree of ripeness fresh from your own garden. Then the fruits are sweet and juicy and simply a pleasure. Once grown, pears in the orchard are just as uncomplicated as apple trees. When planting, however, pears need a little help. Make sure that the soil is well loosened with a little humus.

Answering Queries on Where and How the Supplements Industry Obtain Organic Raw Materials

Botanical ingredients used in the manufacture of dietary supplements are grouped into types, like minerals, vitamins, amino acids, metabolites, enzymes, etc. As raw materials need to be organic or natural, advocates of sustainable farming give advice to consumers that when choosing supplements, make sure to check their organic certification. Mainly because it’s the first indication that the ingredients have been sustainably farmed, using eco-friendly manufacturing processes accordingly prescribed by the guidance set forth by the Organic Trade Association (OTA).

The OTA has established a list of guidelines that dietary supplement manufacturers have to follow in order to have their products certified as truly organic. Such guidelines include practicing organic agriculture, which mainly focus on soil regeneration and non-use of chemical-based substance in farms. OTA guidelines also include using only by-products of the fishing industry and as much as possible, packaging products in recyclable containers.

The Growing Dietary Supplement Industry Has Been Boosting the Organic Agriculture Sector

Dietary supplements include weight loss remedies like fat burners, which in many cases do not require approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in light of the natural ingredients used in their formulations. Under the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, manufacturers of dietary supplements, including fat burners, assume the responsibility in proving the safety and effectiveness of their products. In case it becomes necessary, they must be able to present proofs of testing and certifications that the raw materials used are organic.

Actually, dietary supplements have driven growth in the organic agriculture sector, although only a few local farmers in the U.S. are able to supply the raw materials needed by supplement manufacturers. In order to meet the increasing demand for supplements, some companies enter into contracts with third party manufacturers. Most third party manufacturers maintain their own production and lab-testing facilities.

To qualify as third party contractors, their facilities must be duly certified for Good Manufacturing Practice, a.k.a. GMP-certified. The requirement is one way of ensuring that the third party’s manufacturing processes are controlled in ways that will produce supplements that consistently meet the highest standards of quality. It’s a requisite that lessens the inherent risks that come with the business of manufacturing pharmaceutical products, which cannot be disregarded even if the manufactured supplements pass testing.

Where Do Supplement Manufacturers Buy The Raw Ingredients for Their Products

Supplement manufacturers and their third party subcontractors get their raw materials mostly from organic farmers located in various parts of the world, including a small portion of local farming businesses in the U.S..

Procured through international distributors of organic raw materials, said distributors are likewise required to follow the rules and regulations instituted under U.S. laws, as enforced by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Furthermore, even manufacturers have to examine and grade the quality of the raw materials, to make certain only authentic botanical ingredients will be used for production. Additionally, the grading of raw ingredients prevents or discourages foreign suppliers from providing poor quality organic products.

As final steps to the manufacturing processes, test-result documents and certifications must be secured to serve as proofs of authenticity before the dietary supplements are released and distributed in markets. In reading the Top rated fat burner for women with detailed reviews, take notice that they include descriptions of every ingredient included in the formulation. Such claims are supported by documents and certifications, so that manufacturers can confidently claim that their products are safe and effective.

Vienna Researchers Raise Concerns Over EPFR Produced by Burned Vegetations

It is estimated that approximately 4% of the world’s vegetated land surface gets burned annually, resulting in 250 megatons of carbonized plants.

A recent study conducted by researchers at the University of Vienna revealed that there are elevated concentrations of EPFR or environmentally persistent free radicals in the charcoal, which lasts up to five years. These radicals can create reactive substances that has the ability to harm living organisms including plants.

According to lead researcher Gabriel Sigmund, these EPFR are correlated with harmful effects on our health and the ecosystem. Furthermore, they can also be potential origins of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induces oxidative stress at a cellular level that can hinder the ability of plants to germinate.

The study shows that out of all the 60 charcoal samples derived from ten different wild fires, the scientists found concentrations of EPFR that was ten to a thousand times more compared to the average. Moreover, the EPFR was still stable even after an estimate of five years based on samples that was collected in the same location years after the fire.

Need to Further Study the Potential Impact of EPFR on Ecosystems

According to co-author Thilo Hofmann, these EPFR will significantly create greater impact for longer durations when it is more stable. Moreover, Sigmund stated that the researchers are planning for future studies that will figure out what other consequences will arise for the environment. This includes questions on how it affects the ecosystem, and the extent in the microorganisms’ stress factor.

Trump the Only U.S. President who Removed Protections On Public Lands

In the remaining days of his term, Trump removed the protection of more than three million acres of land inhabited by the endangered northern spotted owls. Located across the Pacific Northwest regions, Trump’s latest action further increased the number of public lands that have lost protection against logging activities not covered by forest management rules, The regions affected are mostly in Northern California, in the coasts of Oregon and Washington all regarded as prime timber locations .

Although the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service already changed the rules regarding public lands allocated as habitats for the northern spotted owl, the revision will take effect on March 16, 2021. This means that there is still time for wildlife organizations to bring the matter to the current president’s attention who, in all probability, will see to the reversal of such action.

President Biden after all was the Vice President to former President Obama with whom he worked in protecting 548 million acres of public property, both in sea and land. The size made record as the largest measure of land that has been granted protection in the history of U.S. public land management.

Trump’s Public Land Management Track Record

According to the Center for American Progress’ (CAP), which in May 2020 had conducted an analysis of Trump’s track record in public management, Trump had actually stripped rather than provided public lands with protection, which affected almost 35 million acres of public land. Described as nearly the size of the state of Florida, Trump made record as the only president in U.S. history to have taken action in removing instead of instituting protection on public lands.

According to the CAP report, the degeneration of the natural heritage caused by the Trump administration occurred within the 4-year span of his term is a serious concern. The report underscores the importance of public land management because they are finite resources, which if destroyed will be gone forever.

Bacteria in Ocean Plastic Wastes Continue to Survive and Thrive

Since the 1960s, plastic has been a favorite material of manufacturers for packaging their products as they are moldable, durable and versatile materials. Although popular because they are very convenient to use, they are also non-biodegradable; which means they do not decompose naturally and remain in land and in bodies of water for thousands of years.

Joint Scientific Study Reveals that Bacteria Inherent to Plastic Materials Thrive in Oceans

In a joint study conducted by researchers from the University of Tsukuba in Japan and University of Plymouth in UK it was discovered that the combination of the worsening plastic pollution and the ongoing decrease of pH level in oceans negatively influences the organisms inhabiting marine habitats. In examining the submerged plastic bottles fished out of the oceans, the researchers made an astounding discovery.

Inside the plastic bottle, they detected twice the amount of the diverse plethora of bacteria, when compared to those found in surrounding areas of water. Further analysis revealed that among the variety of bacteria living in the bottle, nearly 350 of them exist only in plastics.

Experts say that the findings provide more evidence that the increasing plastic wastes found in the ocean. They also provide a new habitat that will allow plastic-based bacteria to survive and thrive in bodies of water. That being the case, the study’s findings highlight the need to give significant attention to local ecological processes and environmental conditions as they could have future adverse impact on marine ecosystems.

According to Dr. Ben Harvey, the lead author of the research, the colonies of bacteria also increased the levels of carbon in the ocean. It is worrisome as they could cause helpful organisms to decrease, and the harmful organisms to prosper.

JHU Researchers Explain Reason Behind False Negative Test Results

Amidst all the testing for COVID-19 that’s been taking place globally, there have been cases when test results came out with false negative outcomes. Inasmuch as test results are critical to efforts in battling the spread of the novel coronavirus, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) conducted a study to find out why false negative results happen, even if patients already show symptoms of infection.

In the report published last May 13 in the Annals of Internal Medicine by JHU School of Medicine researchers, it was learned that while testing is important, taking a test for COVID-19 at the early stage of the coronavirus’ incubation will likely yield a false negative result. If the symptoms persist and worsen, another test taken will subsequently prove whether the symptoms are indeed caused by COVID-19 infection. The question however is when should the test be taken?

Lauren Kucirka, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc., a resident obstetrics and gynecology doctor at Johns Hopkins Medicine that it is important for everyone to know that a negative test does not guarantee a non-infected condition. That being the case, negative test results coming from individuals considered as high risks (elderly people aged 60 and above, and with existing medical conditions) should continue with treatments as if they are COVID-19 positive.

Dr. Kucirka explained that false negatives happen if in a Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) a swab fails to collect virus-infected cells; or if the virus levels of infection in a person is still very low, there’s always a chance for the rRT-PCR test to yield negative results.

rRT-PCR are widely used among high-risk populations housed in nursing home and among hospitalized patients, as well as in health care workers. These are the specific areas and people who have shown false negative results.

What Stage is Too Early for Testing?

Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers reviewed and analyzed RT-PCR test data from 7 previous studies, covering 1,330 respiratory swab samples from different subjects including individual who have been identified by way of via contact tracing and those undergoing treatment as outpatients.

 

The analysis showed that those tested for the COVID-19 virus researchers estimated that those tested within four days after infection, had 67% chance of yielding negative results. Yet when the average person who tested negative begin showing symptoms of the virus, chances of false-negative lowers at 38%.

Finally, John Hopkins researchers arrived at a conclusion that the best time to perform a test is on the 8th day after infection or exposure. At that stage, the chances of producing a false negative result has gone down to 20%. This means that at that point, one out of every five patients who show signs of having the virus will actually show a negative result.

Is Covid-19 Affecting the Environment?

Dolphins, swans, clear blue skies and oceans are being perceived by many as indications of how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting ecosystems and the environment. People are concluding that while daily activities and social lives have been disrupted, reduced carbon emissions are giving them clearer views of natural sceneries beyond the horizon.

 

However, environmental researchers are quick to point out that what we are seeing now are effects of those concerted efforts rather than immediate results of recent quarantine and travel ban measures. They are results of global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions long before the COVID-19 pandemic broke out,

Although it is heartwarming that many are now appreciative in seeing different species returning to their natural habitats, caution is being given when connecting such occurrences to the COVID-19 event. In an interview with Forbes.com. the Managing Director of Rewilding Europe, Frans Schepers explained that

What we are seeing is actually a result of a much longer trend, because had the population of those animal species went into a decline, they would not be showing up in the wake of the novel coronavirus lockdown” “It is natural for animals to behave differently when everything is calm and peaceful, as such conditions allow them get closer to villages and cities.”

Schepers further discussed that people can expect to see more wildlife, demonstrating how numerous species have benefited from habitat improvements, fewer poachers, less hunting activities, better protection, as safer havens owing to absence of all human pressure.

All those take time to happen, and the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic gave nature the opportunity to exhibit how it has responded from such benefits. He added that

“If people ease out pressures on nature, nature bounces back, as what we see happening now.” “Mainly because of nature’s huge resilience and capability to restore itself; giving us hope that ecosystems and the environment could return to their natural conditions.

About Rewilding Europe

Rewilding Europe is a non-profit organisation founded in 2011 by ARK Nature,, Conservation Capital, Wild Wonders of Europe and the WWF-Netherlands. Currently based in Nijmegen, Netherlands, the group’s mission is to create rewilded landscapes across Europe in at least 10 different regions.

UD Researchers Looked Into 3D-Printed Coral Reefs as Possible Replacement Habitats for Marine Organisms

As concerns heightened for marine organisms that rely on endangered reefs for their continued existence, researchers from the University of Delaware have explored the possibility of using 3D-printed coral reefs as replacement habitats.

As it is, possibilities of rehabilitating the endangered corals is getting more remote in light of the worsening weather conditions caused by climate change. Plastic pollution and coral bleaching due to continuously warming water temperatures, continue to destroy the already distraught reefs. As a result many marine organisms are without protection against strong waves and harsh tropical storms.

Dr. Danielle Dixson Assistant Professor at the School of Marine Science & Policy at the UD College of Earth, Ocean and Environment, along with Emily Ruhl, a UD alumnus, have tested the viability of 3D-printed coral reefs.

In a laboratory setting, the researchers placed mustard hill larvae and damselfish near a coral skeleton and 4 artificial corals made of different filaments.

One 3D- coral model was made from polyester, another was made from cornstarch, while another from cornstarch mixed with stainless steel powder. The UD researchers’ observations led them to conclusions that the 3D-printed habitats did not in any way impact the behavior of the damselfish. Also, there were no signs the affected marine organisms had preference for any of the materials used as artificial coral reef skeleton.

Behavioral Analysis Shows Great Potential of 3D-Printed Corals

Dr. Dixson is quite happy with the promising results of their experiments, saying that

“Had the fish not use the 3D-printed coral models as a habitat in the wild, they are at greater risk for predation.” “Had the coral larvae did not settle on the artificially constructed coral skeletons, they cannot help rebuild the reef.”

Ruhl on the other hand was surprised that even with the presence of a natural coral, damselfish and the mustard hill larvae alike did not demonstrate any difference in behavior. They took to the different 3D corals in the same way as they did with the natural coral skeleton. Moreover, the activity level of the damselfish remained constant, regardless if their travels were confined inside a tank.

Ruhl, who holds a Masters Degree in Marine Biosciences, was happy to note that the small reef fish did not mind that the habitat was made from calcium carbonate or not, because all they wanted was a place for protection.

KU Researchers Study Changes that Transpired in the Burned Areas of the Rondônia Amazon Forest

A first of its kind study that sought to gain insight on the changes that transpired in the areas burned by the Rondônia Amazon fire, was conducted by researchers of the University of Kansas (KU).

Headed by Gabriel de Oliveira, a KU Department of Geography & Atmospheric Science researcher, backed with a background in Ph.D. in Remote Sensing acquired from Brazil’s Sao Jose dos Campos via the Brazilian Space Agency/National Institute for Space Research P, Brazil, who stressed the importance of studies centered on biosphere-atmosphere interactions.and the changes that transpire to land cover.

They are significant because such changes affect the exchange of heat and water between the Amazon and the atmosphere.

Gabriel de Oliveira explained that since the Amazon is the largest rainforest in the world, the precipitation and all the water fluxes that transpire in the Amazon, affects the entire planet. That is why much of the international concern over the recent Amazon fire, arises from Amazon’s role in regulating the global climate.

Previous scientific researches have established that every year, the Amazon is capable of absorbing two (2) billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2), which represent about five percent (5%) of global emissions. Continuing fires in the region therefore, tend to erode the Amazon’s carbon-absorbing capacity. Even worse is that widespread fires simultaneously contribute large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere.

What the KU Researchers Gathered from their Analysis of the Burned Land Covers

Using information provided by space and weather station satellites, de Oliveira and his fellow researchers analyzed data on the “Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)” and from “Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

They then compared changes in water and surface energy that transpired in eastern Rondônia, Brazil, over different types of land cover in a drought year and a wet year. The KU research team also found statistically significant variations in other important measures, before and after a year of deforestation.

NASA satellite, high spatial resolution (15m) images, obtained by the ASTER sensor in Rondônia, showed that deforestation that consequently transformed the forest into pasture or agriculture land for soybean production, hand increased the soil and air temperatures in the Brazilian region, by two to four times the measures recorded before deforestation.

The research team also observed that when compared to non-forested areas in Rondônia, the amount of evapotranspiration occurring in Rondônia’s forested areas, are approximately three times higher. Moreover, notable spatial variations on the following:

  • The albedo or the amount of sunlight reflecting on the surface;
  • The net radiation or energy provided by sunlight that is available on the surface;
  • The measure of heat transferred from surface to atmosphere by way of soil and heat fluxes
  • The amount of water transferred from land to atmosphere when evaporating from the soil and during the process of transpiration in plants.

Those significant variances were noted between areas located on the opposite sides of Ji-Paraná River. To which one side had suffered more deforestation than the other side, where land is within the Jaru Biological Reserve protection.

Gabriel de Oliveira, who was born and raised in Brazil, said that

”There are no natural fires in the Amazon. They are all set by human beings, who claim they are only setting to ready the agricultural lands in order to make soil a little better.” ”Yet every year, fires get out of control in agricultural land, reaching and burning the forest.especially during severe drought events as everything is really dry.”

Disruptive Invasive Species can Affect Forest Health in Tornado-Damaged Forest Areas

Researchers of the College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences at the University of Illinois in Chicago have ascertained that after tornadoes touch down and cut through forests, the resulting destruction paves the way for the introduction of new and invasive species.

The study, which was recently published in the Journal of Ecology, furnished evidence that large tornado-damaged areas left open spaces in the forests of southern Illinois, which allowed the introduction of invasive vegetation. As a result, forests with large invasive species growth were slower to recover, when compared to areas left unharmed by tornado blowdowns.

The research project led by Melissa Daniels, a former graduate student amd Eric Larson, assistant professor in the Dept. of Natural Resources and Environment also at the U of I, studied Landsat imagery in identifying blowdown and unharmed forest areas, which Daniels later visited in 2018 for purposes of surveying the invasive plants.

Assistant Professor Eric Larson explained that we tend to assume the forest recovers once the invasive species are shaded out; but they do not. After visiting all 62 sites identified through the Landsat imagery, Daniels reported that certain species of plant invaders demonstrated the ability to thrive and grow even under closed closed canopy conditions.

Why be Concerned about Invasive Species When They will be Outshaded Over Time?

The concern raised by studies related to Ms. Daniels’ findings is that forest management administrators can be misled into believing that forests will take their own natural course in forest recovery. However, since some invasive plant species continue to survive and grow, they pose as blockers to forest regeneration, and cause slow forest recovery.

At the same time, invasive infestation can spread to, and persist in neighboring forests, likewise affecting conditions necessary for faster forest regeneration. The greater impact is that invasive species can disrupt ecosystem services, affect biodiversity and lead to lowering of carbon sequestration,

 

Of the invasive plant species found thriving in the tornado-damaged areas, Daniels identified the top five persistent invaders as the autumn olive, multiflora rose, Amur honeysuckle, the Japanese honeysuckle, and the Oriental bittersweet.

Ms. Daniels explained further that since these invasive plants have the capability to survive shaded conditions, they can impact forest health and the significant benefits forests bring to the communities. The research team therefore emphasized the need to give care about any phenomena that can affect forests.

Study Reveals Pesticides Banned in Other Countries Still Approved in the U.S.

A study conducted by Nathan Donley, a Senior Scientist at the Center for Biological Diversity, revealed that numerous pesticides already banned or currently being phased out in Brazil, China and in EU countries, are still approved for use in the U.S.

Donley’s study which was published by the Environmental Health journal, shows that the US Environmental Protective Agency’s (EPA’s) reliance on voluntary cancellation by the pesticide industry is no longer effective as far as regulations of pesticides are concerned.

Donley’s findings provide evidence that if the EPA continues pesticide regulation by relying on the voluntary mechanism, the U.S. will likewise continue to allow the widespread agricultural use of more and more harmful pesticides already banned by its peer countries.

The Senior Scientist, identified the pesticides only through their number labels; citing Numbers 11, 17 and 72 as pesticides still enjoying US approval, notwithstanding that the substances are already prohibited for use, or in the process of being banned in EU countries,and in China as well as in Brazil. Additionally, pesticides number 85 and 13, plus two others as being in the process of securing approval despite the fact that the substances have already been phased in at least oe or two of the aforementioned agricultural countries.

Study Identifies the Pesticides Already Banned by Other Countries

Donley further claims that of the 1.2 billion pounds of chemical formulations used for pest control in the U.S., an estimated 322 million pounds of the substances have already been banned in EU; 40 million pounds are banned pesticides in China while approximately 26 billion pounds have already been prohibited for use in Brazil.

Moreover, Donley noted that out of the 134 active ingredients used for pesticides, 97 were submitted for voluntary cancellation by the U.S. pesticide industry. Apparently, the EPA became reliant on the submission for voluntary cancellation. So much so that the U.S. is now lagging behind in the prohibition of harmful substances used in controlling pests in U.S. farms.

The observation is demonstrated through the number of pesticides initiated for cancellation by the EPA, which decreased significantly over the years. Whereas, the number of voluntary cancellations submitted by the pesticide industry, rose.

Donley’s findings suggest that the US EPA relies mainly on the voluntary cancellations initiated by the pesticide industry as a method of prohibiting pesticides.

Living Corals : The Need to Survive in the Face of Climate Change

Living corals face numerous threats as many reef-inhabiting fish are corallivorous, species that consume live coral tissues as food. Majority of reef-fishes prey on living corals, some preferring the soft mollusk types, while many others such as the larger fish species, feed on hard or stony corals. In the Indo-Pacific region alone (comprised by the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean), more than 600 species of hard corals provide food and habitat structure to an estimated 4000 up to 5000 species of reef fish.

However, many corallivores or coral-eating fishes tend to scrape the tissues off the coral skeleton, and in the process, cause substantial damage to the underlying skeleton. As a result , living corals take time to recover, as the process has to deal with both tissue and skeleton regeneration. Such occurrences tend to threaten the ability of hard corals to provide calcium carbonate skeletons that make up the hard substrate of coral reefs. This type of threat to the formation of coral reefs, is presumably a part of the natural check and balance in aquatic life.

Coral reefs, as we all know, is essential to marine ecology since the structure formed by the coral skeleton serves as habitat and shelter for a broad range of fish species. Coral unable to recover from diseases or harsh feeding habits of corallivores, leave behind skeletons that remain intact for long periods of time, allowing the formation of coral reefs.

Impact of Climate Change on Living Corals

Global warming has caused climate changes that bring extreme warm or cold conditions. Living corals tend to react to stressors, such as overly warm or overly cold water temperatures. When stressed, corals expel the algae covering their tissues causing them to turn white. Such occurrences are called coral bleaching.

Climate change caused increases in sea temperatures and decline in sea levels, as well as brought down rainfall with altered acidity level. Coral bleaching cause living corals to die, whilst leaving behind weak skeleton infrastructure as coral reef material. Low tides also cause damage, especially during daytime. Mainly because the part of the coral reef exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet rays are stressed and as a result turn white or bleached..

All factors affecting living corals and the structures they form, impact aquatic life, particularly the multitude of species that depend on corals for food and habitat. Corals have the ability to recover from occasional stresses caused by stressors and threats. Yet the frequency and intensity of the trauma endured as a result of climate change, will in the long run cause corals and those that greatly depend on them, to perish.

Studies Show Climate-Induced Reorganization of Food Web, Happening Across the Globe

Warmer than average temperatures are causing generalist species with preference for colder habitats, to move and redistribute in groups toward the poles. As a result, their movement toward new ecosystems is changing the flow of energy and carbon as they connect to existing food webs; whilst altering the natural feeding behaviors in a particular ecosystem.

When ecosystems are altered, food connections are rewired. Rewiring transpires when species navigating across landscapes in search of abundant sources of food, rapidly respond by shifting habitats. Through their relative use of different sources of energy, their foraging behavior causes a rewiring of the links connecting different feeding behaviors that exist in an ecosystem.

University of Guelph Conducts Studies on Changing Behavior of Generalist Species in Lake Ontario

Researchers at the University of Guelph in Canada, led by Tim Bartley, of the Department of Integrative Biology, together with biology professors Andrew McDougall and Kevin McCann, conducted studies by monitoring generalist species. The results of their studies were published in the Nature Ecology and Evolution journal, to which they recommend harnessing the natural ability of species to detect and react to the changes happening in their natural habitats.

Over the past decade, the team of UG researchers monitored how lake trout, a generalist species, has been forced to move into deeper waters to forage. The movement was in response to warmer lake temperatures. As a generalist species, lake trouts can survive in different conditions and feed on a variety of prey species. Climate-induced movement and feeding behaviors of the lake trout, manifested changes in the flow of energy and use of nutrients in the lake; causing a rewiring of the existing food web.

Tim Bartley went as far as analyzing the tissues of lake trouts to identify its new prey species and the locations of new resource. Lake trouts are known to be flexible feeders and may feed on other fish species. Although the UG researchers were unable to establish the identity of the prey species, the tissue analysis showed that lake trouts feed mostly on herrings. The analysis suggests that herrings had likewise moved to the deeper parts of the lake.

Based on their monitoring of the altered behavior of lake trouts, the UG researchers concluded that keeping track of behavioural changes in generalist species can serve as early warning system. The significance of such system will prove useful to humans who depend on the resources provided by the ecosystem for subsistence.

Studies of Bolivia Earthquakes Reveal Mountains Located 660 Kms Below Earth’s Surface

Geophysicists conducted studies of the shockwaves that hit Bolivia in 2018, led to the discovery of a complex terrain of mountain ranges. Using a network of powerful computer-aided seismic instruments, geophysicists Jessica Irving of Princeton University and Wenbo Wu, currently a researcher at California Institute of Technology and seismologist Sidao Ni, published their findings in “Science.” The research was actually a joint project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Science and Technology in China, and Princeton University in New Jersey, US.

The most recent earthquake in Bolivia took place in April 2018, which thankfully did not result to casualties, had measured 6.8 in the richter scale at a depth of 562 kilometers. The earthquake sent waves across the region including Bolivia’s capital city, San Salvador, which caused alarm to many residents. In studying the most powerful waves produced by the massive earthquake, the geophysicists were able to unravel a new topography suggestive of mountain ranges, posing as composition of the layer separating the upper and lower mantle. They tentatively call the layer as the “660-km Boundary.”

New Findings Establishes the Transition Zone as a Range of Mountainous Landforms

The exact composition of Earth’s inner layers has long been a debatable issue among scientists. Traditionally, the layer between the upper and lower mantle about 660 kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface, is referred as the Transition Zone.

The zone is said to have occurred as a result of minerals (olivine) forming thicker structures of crystal minerals, which when converted reflected between the upper and lower mantle. Those previous findings was deducted from studies of a body of waves generated by earthquakes, which based on mineral physics are dependent on phase-changes related to temperature, density and depth.

The new findings gathered by geophysicists Irving, Wu and Ni, revealed that the Transition Zone they now call as the “660 KM Boundary,” possesses stronger topography than those of Rocky Mountains or the Himalayas. The geophysicists also noted that the zone had smoother areas suggestive of similar topography found in mountain ranges and abyssal plains.

Wildfire Impact in an Imbalanced Ecosystem

Nearly all studies conducted about wildfire, indicate that the Earth is basically susceptible to wildfire occurrences.

Where vegetation such as grasses, brush, trees and homes pose as flammable materials, the presence of oxygen in the air plus the intense heat of the sun, can all combine and start an uncontrollable wildfire. In 2018, intense scorching heat waves engulfed many parts of Europe, causing the decade’s worst natural wildfire disaster to spread in Greece, Sweden and Latvia.

The California wildfire tragedy in November 2018, is touted as the most devastating in the state’s history. Although investigations have yet to determine the actual cause, a common observation among firefighters is that the wildfire was made much worse by the effects of global warming.

Still, despite the occurrence of such phenomenon, recent global studies show that between 84% and 90% of wildfires that transpired worldwide, were caused by humans. Aside from decimating natural resource and private properties, destroying human lives, as well as creating adverse economic and social impact, the aftermath of wildfires has enduring effects not visible to the naked eye.

Burned Forest Soils Take as Many as 80 Years to Fully Recover

Based on an important study recently conducted by the Australian National University, burned forest soils will take as many as 80 years to recover. The findings is contrary to common previous perceptions that soil recovery will take place after 10 to 15 years.

Regardless of what or who caused a wildfire, the enduring ill-effects of soil burned by overly intense heat will greatly affect the functions of the ecosystem, particularly those that largely depend on plant communities.

Professor David Lindenmayer of the ANU Fenner School of Environment and Society, and also a member of the research team said that not even scientists knew for how long forest soils are affected after a wildfire.

“We thought forests could recover within 10 or 15 years, at most, after these sorts of events.”

According to the ANU report, raging wildfires can bring soil temperatures beyond 500 degrees Celsius, likely resulting to depletion of vital soil nutrients. If the area has been previously disturbed by logging activities, the degradation of soil nutrients by wildfires will be more severe.

In light of such findings, the ANU research stressed the importance of including such effects in carrying out land management initiatives and in formulating related policies aimed at reducing, if not preventing wildfires and logging disturbances.

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